Dziga Vertov (1896-1954, Denis Arkadyevich Kaufman) His pseudonym is derived from the Polish word dziga (spinning top) and the Russian word вертеться (to turn). Vertov studied at the Military Music School and at the Psychoneurological Institute. He began editing the newsreel Kino-Nedelya in 1918. In 1920, he began directing documentaries and started the Kino-Pravda newsreels. In 1923 he founded the Kinoks creative group. In 1929, he directed Man with a Movie Camera, which became a benchmark of documentary filmmaking. During World War II, he supervised film shootings on the frontlines. He made one of the first documentary films with sound, Enthusiasm: Symphony of the Donbass (1930). After moving to Ukraine, he managed the Kiev film factory VUFKU (1927-1930). During the Stalin, Vertov was persecuted – the censors did not approve many of his screenplays and he experiences a career crisis as a result. From 1944 to the end of his life, Vertov worked as the director-editor of the News of the Day newsreel. His wife, film editor Elizaveta Svilova, was co-director and assistant on his films. Vertov’s most famous works included: A Sixth Part of the World (1926) Eleventh (1928), Three Songs about Lenin (1934), Lullaby (1937) and others.